John Blake (John Edward Blake, Jr.) was an American jazz violinist, teacher, composer, arranger, writer, and band leader, born (in Philadelphia) on July 3, 1947. Although thoroughly trained as a classical violinist, he gravitated toward jazz early on in his career. He first came to the public’s attention in the mid-1970s as a member of ensembles headed by other jazz musicians, Archie Shepp and Grover Washington, with whom he recorded and toured extensively for several years. Afterward, Blake performed with a wide variety of artists, including the Duke Ellington Orchestra, the Billy Taylor Trio, the Turtle Island String Quartet, Quartet Indigo, and Didier Lockwood. He later released six CDs of his own, beginning in 1984. He was 37 years old. Blake began his violin studies in Philadelphia at age 9. He much later studied at West Virginia University and in Switzerland at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Montreux. Here is a YouTube video in which he appears with Billy Taylor, Chip Jackson, and Winard Harper. In addition to being a guest lecturer on university campuses around the world, Blake taught at the Manhattan School of Music, the University of Arts in Philadelphia, and at East Tennessee State University. He also co-wrote the best-known string jazz method book in use today. His best-known pupil is probably jazz violinist Regina Carter. In fact, he produced one of Carter’s CDs (Reverse Thread), prior to which she had been awarded a MacArthur Genius Grant (2006.) Blake died on August 15, 2014, at age 67.
Sunday, August 24, 2014
Sunday, August 10, 2014
Renaud Capucon is a French violinist born (in Chambery) on January 27, 1976. He was discovered by conductor Claudio Abbado, who was instrumental in encouraging his career, just as Arturo Toscanini discovered Vasa Prihoda, Thomas Beecham discovered Albert Sammons, and Edouard Colonne discovered Jacques Thibaud. Capucon began studying the violin at age 4 at the music conservatory in Chambery. He studied, between ages 12 and 19, with American violinist Veda Reynolds (in Europe.) At 14, he entered the National Conservatory of Music and Dance in Paris from which he graduated at age 17. His main teacher there was Gerard Poulet. One of his other teachers was Thomas Brandis (in Berlin.) Capucon briefly played in the European Union Youth Orchestra and then was invited by Claudio Abbado to serve as concertmaster (1998-2000) of the Gustav Mahler Youth Orchestra (which Abbado founded and conducted regularly.) Capucon simultaneously began playing as a soloist and chamber musician and quickly rose to stardom. He first soloed with the Berlin Philharmonic on November 15, 2002, playing the Korngold Concerto. He was 26 years old. His career has taken him around the world and he has already performed with all of the major orchestras and played as soloist or in recital in the best-known concert halls. The only exception is the New York Philharmonic, with which I could not find any record of an appearance. I cannot guess as to the reason, but it does happen now and then – an instance of a major artist who has never appeared with one or another of the major orchestras or this or that major conductor. Although he has over 20 CDs in his discography, his most important recording – as far as I am concerned - is probably his recording of the Schumann concerto, a gem which was unknown and un-played for many decades thanks to Joseph Joachim’s negative opinion of it. Here is a YouTube video of his performance of this concerto with the Chamber Orchestra of Europe. As do most of today’s violinists, Capucon plays lots of chamber music in recital and at quite a few music festivals far and wide, including the Verbier, Lucerne, San Sebastian, Edinburgh, and Tanglewood. Capucon has recorded for the DG, Decca, EMI, TDK, and Virgin Classics labels. On May 25, 2009, Capucon was filmed playing in the midst of metro commuters in Paris (line 6 of the metro but I don’t know which station), unrecognized and unacknowledged by the passing crowd. Joshua Bell did a similar thing on January 12, 2007 in Washington D.C. with similar results. This reminds me of the doctor’s mother (or father) who used the van Gogh portrait of their son (Dr. Felix Rey) to plug a hole in their chicken coup. They had no clue the painting was (or would later be) valuable. After the piece was sold and discovered (20 years later), it was eventually brought to a museum where it was appraised at several millions. Location can, and frequently does, make all the difference in the world. Among Capucon’s violins have been a Vuillaume, a Guadagnini, and the 1737 Panette Guarnerius, previously owned by Isaac Stern.
Sunday, July 27, 2014
Konstanty Kulka (Konstanty Andrzej Kulka) is a Polish violinist and teacher born (in Gdansk, Poland) on March 5, 1947. Kulka spends most of his time in Europe, although he has toured around the world, playing with most major orchestras, including the London Symphony, the Concertgebouw, the Berlin Philharmonic, and the Chicago Symphony. Kulka has also played at many of the world’s music festivals, including ones in Lucerne, Berlin, Prague, Barcelona, and Warsaw. He began studying violin at age 8 with Ludwig Gbiorczyk. At 24, he graduated from the Stanislaw Moniuszco Academy of Music (Gdansk) in 1971, where his primary teacher was Stefan Herman. He had, however, already started concertizing in 1967. In fact, at age 17, he entered and received first prize at the German International ARD Radio Competition in Munich (in 1964.) He first appeared with the Berlin Philharmonic on February 28, 1982, playing Krzysztof Penderecki’s second violin concerto. He was 34 years old. In 1984, he was appointed violin soloist with the Warsaw Philharmonic. In 1994, Kulka was appointed violin professor at the Frederick Chopin School of Music in Warsaw. As far as I know, he is still teaching there. Kulka has recorded extensively and champions the music of modern Polish composers. Among the standard concertos he has in his discography are the Mozart, Mendelssohn, Beethoven, Lalo, Bartok, Prokofiev, Brahms, and Glazunov. In addition, he has recorded for many television and radio programs. Here is a video of his performance of the Mieczyslaw Karlowicz concerto. Karlowicz was a Polish composer who showed great promise but who, unfortunately, died very young (at age 32.) Here is an audio file of the first movement of Lalo’s Symphonie Espagnol. In 1981, Kulka received the Grand Prix du Disque for his recording of both Karol Szymanowski concertos. The Polish government has also bestowed several official honors on Kulka.
Sunday, July 13, 2014
Edouard Rappoldi (Eduard Rappoldi) was an Austrian violinist, teacher, conductor, and composer born (in Vienna) on February 21, 1839. He is best known for his teaching and his close association with Joseph Joachim. He began his violin studies at an early age, as do most concert violinists. His first teachers were two violinists I had never heard of until now - Leopold Jansa and a Mr. Doleschall, whose first name eluded me as I was doing my research, such as it was. At only age 7, he made his first public appearance as a violinist and pianist. It has been said that he later became a skilled pianist. At the Vienna Conservatory he studied (1851-1854) with two of the best teachers in the world, Georg Hellmesberger (Sr.) – or possibly Josef (Joseph) Hellmesberger (Sr.) - and Joseph Bohm. From 1854 to 1861, he played violin in the Vienna Court Opera Orchestra, though presumably not as concertmaster. He also toured Europe as a soloist. He was 15 years old when he joined the orchestra and 22 when he left. From 1861 to 1866 he was concertmaster of the Rotterdam German Opera Orchestra. He then became conductor of orchestras (I don’t know which orchestras) - between the years 1866 and 1870 - in Lubeck (in 1866), Stettin (in 1867), and Prague (in 1869), successively. In 1871, at age 32, he was appointed violin teacher at the Royal School of Music in Berlin, which Joachim had helped establish. Joachim was already teaching there. Rappoldi was a member of the Joachim Quartet (as violist) between 1871 and 1877. When Rappoldi joined the quartet, Heinrich De Ahna moved from viola to second violin and after Rappoldi left the quartet, Emmanuel Wirth took his place as violist. De Ahna stayed on second. In 1877, Rappoldi was appointed principal violin instructor at the Dresden Conservatory. He taught there for 15 years. He was also concertmaster of the Dresden Opera during those years but retired from playing in 1898. He was 59 or 60 years old – I don’t know which. One source claims he was also the conductor at the Dresden Opera. Perhaps he was one of the conductors, as opera companies seldom – if ever – hire just one conductor. His compositions include symphonies, quartets, and sonatas. As far as I know, his music is seldom performed now except perhaps in Germany and Austria. One of Rappoldi’s best known and most accomplished pupils was Charles Loeffler, a very influential violinist and composer in the U.S. in the first half of the twentieth century. Rappoldi died (in Dresden) on May 16, 1903, at age 64.
Sunday, June 29, 2014
Adolfo Betti was an Italian violinist, teacher, and music editor born (in Bagni Di Lucca, Italy) on March 21, 1875. (Bagni Di Lucca is a small village in Tuscany, Italy - it is situated about 30 miles northwest of Florence and about 70 miles south of Cremona.) He is known for leading, as first violinist, the Flonzaley Quartet from 1903 to 1929. In its first few years, he and second violinist, Alfred Pochon, actually alternated playing first violin. Two other quartets who used to or still do this are the Emerson and the Jacobsohn string quartets. The Flonzaley quartet was one of two very famous (and important) American string quartets playing in the early twentieth century - the other was the Kneisel Quartet. Interestingly, its founder was not a professional musician. He was philanthropist Edward J. De Coppet. The quartet was actually named for De Coppet’s summer home near Geneva, Switzerland. Although I have no idea who Betti’s early teachers were, I do know he made his public debut as a child of either six or seven - accounts vary. He entered the Liege Conservatory (Belgium) in 1892. There, he studied with Cesar Thomson. He graduated in 1896, at age 21. Thereafter, he concertized in Europe. In 1900, he was appointed assistant to his former teacher (Thomson) at the Brussels Conservatory. In 1903, he was invited, by Alfred Pochon, to become part of the Flonzaley Quartet. Pochon was also teaching at the Brussels Conservatory at the time. Betti was 28 years old. After the quartet disbanded, Betti spent his time between New York and his birthplace, teaching, editing music, and playing occasionally. The public library in Bagni Di Lucca is named after him. According to one source, he was even mayor of Bagni Di Lucca for a while. In New York, Betti taught at the Mannes College of Music. He played, among other violins, a 1782 J.B. Guadagnini and a 1741 Guarnerius Del Gesu. I don’t know who owns or plays those violins today. One of his better known students was David Nadien, who very recently passed away. Betti died on December 2, 1950, at age 75.
Sunday, June 15, 2014
Dorothy DeLay was an American violinist and teacher born (in Medicine Lodge, Kansas) on March 31, 1917. She is well-known as the teacher of many world famous violinists and as a pedagogue as accomplished as Peter Stolyarski, Leopold Auer, Carl Flesch, Ivan Galamian, Otakar Sevcik, Joseph Gingold, and Zakhar Bron. She easily taught more than a thousand students during her career. A story is told of how when DeLay was two years old, she had opportunity to hug and kiss the King of Belgium – just as the child prodigy Mozart hugged and kissed Marie Antoinette. She began her violin studies at age 4. She first played in public at age 5. By age 14, she was the leader of her high school orchestra, which numbered about one hundred players. At 16, she entered Oberlin College (Ohio) where she studied with Raymond Cerf, an obscure violinist who had been a pupil of Eugene Ysaye. At 17, she entered Michigan State University, from which she graduated at age 20. Her violin teacher there was another obscure violinist and conductor named Michael Press. From there, she went (in 1937) to New York to study with Louis Persinger at Juilliard. She was still only 20 years old. She also later studied with Hans Letz and Felix Salmond at the same school. DeLay earned a living while at Juilliard by doing odd jobs and playing wherever and whenever she could. It was during this time that she founded the Stuyvesant Trio which was active from 1939 to 1942. She also became a member of Leopold Stokowski’s All-American Youth Orchestra which toured South America and the U.S. in 1940 and 1941. She graduated from Juilliard in 1941 but also got married that year. She subsequently traveled with her husband due to his military service during the war but also occasionally performed as a soloist and with the trio. In 1946, DeLay decided to take a break from performing and returned to Juilliard for further study. She was 29 years old. Her teacher then was Ivan Galamian. In 1948 (one source says 1947), she became Galamian’s teaching assistant. The rest is history. She was 31 years old. DeLay had also considered studying medicine during this time but decided against it. (Interestingly, Austrian violinist Fritz Kreisler did study medicine and actually became a doctor, though, as far as I know, he never actually practiced.) She also concurrently began teaching at the Henry Street Settlement School and Sarah Lawrence College (1947-1987.) In 1970, she finally established her own teaching studio at Juilliard. She was 53 years old and had already been teaching at Juilliard for more than 20 years, although under Galamian’s shadow. One fine day, after it had become quite obvious that her teaching style and methods were incompatible with Galamian’s, Delay let Galamian know that she would not be teaching at Meadowmount (Galamian’s summer music camp) that summer (in 1970) but would be at the Aspen Music camp instead; the relationship ruptured and Galamian (1903-1981) never spoke to her again. In fact, he tried to get her fired but was unsuccessful. DeLay played a 1778 GB Guadagnini (named the Dorothy Delay Guadagnini) which was sold at auction in October of 2013 – for $1,390,000. She acquired the violin in 1969. Today, more than a dozen Juilliard teachers are former pupils of hers. Besides Juilliard, DeLay also taught at the University of Cincinnati, the New England Conservatory, and the Royal College of Music in London. It has been said that DeLay once stated that “talent is just a mood.” Among her famous pupils are Anton Barachovsky, Philippe Quint, Itzhak Perlman, Tijana Milosevic, Miranda Cuckson, Nigel Kennedy, Peter Oundjian, Jaap van Zweden, Shlomo Mintz, David Kim, Robert McDuffie, Aaron Janse, Cornelia Heard, Mark Kaplan, Midori Goto, Frank Almond, Sarah Chang, Paul Kantor, Robert Chen, Gil Shaham, and Akiko Suwanai. Dorothy DeLay died on March 24, 2002, at age 84. Today, Itzhak Perlman teaches in her place. The photo shows DeLay in her early twenties.
Sunday, June 1, 2014
Oldrich Vlcek is a Czech violinist and conductor born (in Byk, Czechoslovakia) on May 18, 1939. (I could not find Byk on a map of Czechoslovakia so I don’t know where it is.) He is known for having recorded over 200 CDs with various European chamber orchestras, although the vast majority (on various labels) have been with the Prague Chamber Orchestra and the Virtuosi di Praga. He has also performed with some of the most outstanding soloists of our time, including Mstislav Rostropovich, Josef Suk, Sergey Krylov, and Placido Domingo. Among his distinguished accomplishments has been his appointment (in 2004) as one of the principal conductors of the orchestra of the Estates Theatre in Prague. You can read a little more about this famous theatre here. After studying with Bohumila Kotmela, Vlcek was a pupil of Nora Grumlikova at the Prague Academy of Art (Academy of Performing Arts in Prague - film director Milos Forman [aka Jan Tomas Kohn] also studied there.) Vlcek also studied conducting with Vaclav Neumann, the chief conductor of the Czech Philharmonic (1968-1990). He was appointed concertmaster and conductor of the Prague Chamber Orchestra (established in 1951) in 1980. In 1990, he re-established the Virtuosi di Praga. He is given credit for quite successfully navigating (with this ensemble) the hard economic times that came upon Czechoslovakia after the fall of the Communist regime in 1990. He had actually founded the Virtuosi di Praga in 1976 but the orchestra had disbanded for reasons I know nothing about. Besides Czechoslovakia, Vlcek has also guest conducted in Europe, Korea, and Canada. As leader and soloist with the Prague Chamber Orchestra and the Virtuosi di Praga, Vicek has toured worldwide. His very interesting recording of the Four Seasons is here. You can hear Vlcek play Vivaldi here.